Ultrasound of the Upper Limb – Resources


Below you’ll find information and resources relevant to MSK US of the Upper Limb.  You’ll find that our course will cover things comprehensively, but if you want to get the most out of your course, you’ll find many of these resources and readings useful.


The course programme can be found here


Pavillions Hotel is at 42 Papanui Road, Christchurch. A link to their website can be found here.

Pre-course Zoom session

This 1 hour session was held on 3rd May, and covers some background information, as well as important anatomy and clinical background that is worth being familiar with in order to get the most out of the course – it frees up more time for hands on scanning!

Click here for the recording

Passcode: 2NFQ12U*

You can download the slides used in the presentation here


A basic level of MSK US experience is helpful for this course. This includes an understanding of basic US physics, artefacts and knobology.

Below is a Zoom link to a recording covering much of this that you will find useful :

Ultrasound basic physics, settings and artifacts   Passcode: 2E#7^uuA


A comprehensive ultrasound examination is performed in a structured and systematic manner, according to protocols. There are many different protocols, but some of the most popular are the ESSR (European Society of MusculoSkeletal Radiology) protocols:





Below are a selection of excellent review articles. Click on each for a PDF to open in a new window.


Awerbuch, M. S. (2008). The clinical utility of ultrasonography for rotator cuff disease, shoulder impingement syndrome and subacromial bursitis. Medical Journal of Australia188(1), 50-53.

Plomb-Holmes, C., Clavert, P., Kolo, F., Tay, E., Lädermann, A., & French Arthroscopic Society. (2018). An orthopaedic surgeon’s guide to ultrasound imaging of the healthy, pathological and postoperative shoulder. Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research104(8), S219-S232.

Singh, J. P. (2012). Shoulder ultrasound: what you need to know. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging22(04), 284-292.


De Maeseneer, M., Brigido, M. K., Antic, M., Lenchik, L., Milants, A., Vereecke, E., … & Shahabpour, M. (2015). Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves. European journal of radiology84(4), 671-681.

Konin, G. P., Nazarian, L. N., & Walz, D. M. (2013). US of the elbow: indications, technique, normal anatomy, and pathologic conditions. Radiographics33(4), E125-E147.

Tagliafico, A. S., Bignotti, B., & Martinoli, C. (2015). Elbow US: anatomy, variants, and scanning technique. Radiology275(3), 636-650.

Wrist and Hand

Lee, J. C., & Healy, J. C. (2005). Normal sonographic anatomy of the wrist and hand. Radiographics25(6), 1577-1590.

Lee, S. A., Kim, B. H., Kim, S. J., Kim, J. N., Park, S. Y., & Choi, K. (2016). Current status of ultrasonography of the finger. Ultrasonography35(2), 110.

Mezian, K., Ricci, V., Jacisko, J., Sobotová, K., Angerová, Y., Nanka, O., & Özçakar, L. (2021). Ultrasound imaging and guidance in common wrist/hand pathologies. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation100(6), 599-609.

Tamborrini, G., Möller, I., Bong, D., Miguel, M., Marx, C., Müller, A. M., & Müller-Gerbl, M. (2017). The rotator interval–A link between anatomy and ultrasound. Ultrasound international open3(03), E107-E116.


Chin, K. J., Perlas, A., Chan, V. W., & Brull, R. (2008). Needle visualization in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: challenges and solutions. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine33(6), 532-544.

Reusz, G., Sarkany, P., Gal, J., & Csomos, A. (2014). Needle-related ultrasound artifacts and their importance in anaesthetic practice. British journal of anaesthesia112(5), 794-802.

Torp-Pedersen, S. T., & Terslev, L. (2008). Settings and artefacts relevant in colour/power Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology. Annals of the rheumatic diseases67(2), 143-149.