Ultrasound of the Lower Limb – Resources


We look forward to seeing you on Thursday, March 30th, at The Pavillions Hotel, Papanui Road, Christchurch.

Download a copy of the programme here (Please note that this programme is subject to change)

Live Pre-course Zoom Session – WEDNESDAY, 22 MARCH, 730pm

Click here for a recording of this session

Passcode: Um996M%3

You can download the presentations in pdf format by clicking the below links:

Introduction and fundamentals

Anatomy Primer

Below are a number of resources relevant to Ultrasound of the Lower Limb. You’ll find that our course will cover things comprehensively, but if you want to enhance your learning further, you’ll find them useful.


Below is a zoom link to a recording that provides useful information to help prepare you for your course:

Ultrasound basic physics, settings and artifacts

Passcode: 2E#7^uuA


A comprehensive ultrasound examination is performed in a structured and systematic manner, according to protocols. There are many different protocols, but some of the most popular are the ESSR (European Society of MusculoSkeletal Radiology) protocols:





Below are a selection of excellent review articles. Click on each for a PDF to open in a new window.


Lin, Y.-T. and T.-G. Wang (2012). “Ultrasonographic Examination of the Adult Hip.” Journal of Medical Ultrasound 20(4): 201-209.

Lungu, E., et al. (2018). “US Assessment of Sports-related Hip Injuries.” Radiographics 38(3): 867-889.

Molini, L., et al. (2011). “Hip: Anatomy and US technique.” J Ultrasound 14(2): 99-108.

Payne, J. M. (2016). “Ultrasound-Guided Hip Procedures.” Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 27(3): 607-629.


Alves TI, Girish G, Kalume Brigido M, Jacobson JA. US of the Knee: Scanning Techniques, Pitfalls, and Pathologic Conditions. Radiographics. 2016 Oct;36(6):1759-1775. doi: 10.1148/rg.2016160019. PMID: 27726755.

De Maeseneer, M., et al. (2014). “Ultrasound of the knee with emphasis on the detailed anatomy of anterior, medial, and lateral structures.” Skeletal Radiol 43(8): 1025-1039.

Foot and Ankle

Golano, P., et al. (2010). “Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay.” Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 18(5): 557-569.

Sconfienza, Luca & Orlandi, Davide & Lacelli, Francesca & Serafini, Giovanni & Silvestri, Enzo. (2015). Dynamic High-Resolution US of Ankle and Midfoot Ligaments: Normal Anatomic Structure and Imaging Technique. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 35. 164-78. 10.1148/rg.351130139.


Chin, K. J., Perlas, A., Chan, V. W., & Brull, R. (2008). Needle visualization in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: challenges and solutions. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine33(6), 532-544.

Reusz, G., Sarkany, P., Gal, J., & Csomos, A. (2014). Needle-related ultrasound artifacts and their importance in anaesthetic practice. British journal of anaesthesia112(5), 794-802.

Torp-Pedersen, S. T., & Terslev, L. (2008). Settings and artefacts relevant in colour/power Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology. Annals of the rheumatic diseases67(2), 143-149.